It is necessary to emphasize the importance of issues such as
🛃 Customs law covers taxes, tariffs and other regulations to be applied during the cross-border movement of goods and services. This law has a critical role in regulating foreign trade. On the other hand, 💱 exchange regime refers to the rules that regulate a country’s transactions with foreign currencies. The warehousing and exchange regime specifies how foreign exchange transactions, which are important for exporters and importers, will be carried out. Finally, all these legislations play a key role in determining the financial obligations that companies face in foreign trade.
Legal Regulations Regarding Foreign Trade
Foreign trade covers the exchange of goods and services between countries. Various legal regulations are needed in order for the foreign trade activities of countries to occur in an orderly, fair and effective manner. Here are some basic legal regulations regarding foreign trade:
- 📘 Foreign Trade Regime: It is a set of general rules and regulations that determine the import and export policies of a country.
- 🛃 Customs Law: It covers taxes, tariffs, quotas and other regulations to be applied during the cross-border movement of goods and services.
- 💱 Foreign Exchange Legislation: It is the set of rules that regulate the country’s transactions with foreign currencies and foreign currency. This includes exchange rates, transfers and payments in foreign currency.
- 🏭 Internal Processing Regime: Regulates the re-export of imported goods after they have been processed in the country.
- 🌐 External Processing Regime: These are the rules regarding the re-importation of domestic goods after they are taken abroad and processed or transformed into a product.
- 🛍️ Export Regime: It includes the regulations determining sales from the country to foreign countries and the rules, incentives and obligations regarding these sales.
- 🛍️ Import Regime: It covers purchases made from foreign countries to a country and the rules, incentives and obligations regarding these purchases.
These legal regulations may vary from country to country. However, in general, the aim of these regulations is to ensure that foreign trade is conducted in a fair, effective and sustainable manner. Each country determines and updates these regulations according to its own economic and political priorities.
Import Regime Decision and Import Regulation
🌏 Import Regime Decision: Countries establish certain rules and regulations to balance, protect and direct foreign trade activities. The Import Regime Decision outlines these rules that form the basis of a country’s import policy. In this decision, issues such as which products can be imported and under what conditions, principles of import and which products will not be allowed to be imported are detailed.
📑 Import Regulation: This regulation focuses on conditions for carrying out import operations. All kinds of import-related transactions, which documents are needed, which customs legislation will be applied, how to comply with the customs law and the rules regarding the exchange regime are here. It is specified in the regulation.
🛃 Here are the important points of these two basic documents in foreign trade:
- 📌 Regime and Principles: Import Regime Decision and Import Regulation determine the general framework and principles on how imports will be carried out. This is the cornerstone of foreign trade activities.
- 📜 Legal Compliance: These documents explain exactly how importing companies will comply with customs law and other relevant laws.
- 💹 Foreign Exchange and Capital: Foreign exchange transfer and capital movements during import transactions are evaluated within the scope of foreign exchange regime. That’s why importers must act in accordance with this regime.
- 🌍 Foreign Trade Regime: In general, there must be harmony between the foreign trade regime and the principles and conditions of import. This ensures smooth conduct of international trade.
As a result, the Import Regime Decision and Import Regulation, which are the cornerstones of a country’s import policy, are of critical importance for the regular, fair and effective conduct of foreign trade. It is of great importance for importing companies to act in accordance with these regulations and decisions, both for the national economy and for international commercial relations.
Import Regime Decision
Import Regime Decision is a decree or official document that determines a country’s import-related policies and practices. It may be different in each country, but in general it determines how and under what conditions a particular product or group of products will be imported into the country. Tariff rates, quotas, licensing and other regulations regarding imports are determined by this decision.
The basic elements of the Import Regime Decision are as follows:
- Tariff Rates: Indicates how much customs duty will be applied for which products.
- Quatas: Quantity limitations that determine how much of a particular product can be imported annually.
- Licensing: Indicates which products require prior authorization or license to be imported.
- Principles of Import: General rules, procedures and obligations regarding import are stated in this section.
- Prohibitions and Restrictions: Import of some products may be completely prohibited or restricted under certain conditions. These prohibitions and restrictions are also stated in the Import Regime Decision.
This decision should be compatible with a country’s economic, industrial, agricultural and trade policies. At the same time, the country must comply with international agreements and commitments, free trade agreements or the rules of international organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO).
As a result, the Import Regime Decision is one of the cornerstones of a country’s foreign trade policy and a decisive guide for importers. Compliance with the rules and regulations specified in this decision is essential for the smooth and legal execution of import transactions.
Import Regulation is an official document that determines a country’s detailed procedures, application principles and conditions regarding imports. This regulation is generally published by a country’s ministry of commerce or customs and is prepared in accordance with the Import Regime Decision. Import Regulations include how import procedures will be carried out, what kind of documents are needed and other technical details.
The main elements of the Import Regulation are:
- General Provisions: Basic definitions regarding imports specify the scope and purpose.
- Required Documents: Documents, certificates and licenses that must be submitted for import transactions are listed in this section.
- Customs Procedures: Detailed procedures regarding the entry, declaration, control and customs clearance of goods into the country are specified in this section.
- Payment and Foreign Exchange Transactions: Rules and procedures regarding payment methods in imports, foreign exchange transfer, and foreign exchange regime are explained in this section.
- Special Conditions and Exceptions: Special import conditions or exceptions may be determined for some products or situations. For example, there may be different rules for companies with investment incentive certificates.
- Audit and Penalty: What sanctions will be applied in case of violation, audit mechanisms and penalty procedures are defined in this section.
The Import Regulations provide clear guidance to importers on what steps they must follow when goods and services enter the country. This regulation is of critical importance in order to avoid problems in international trade, to carry out imports quickly and efficiently, and to fulfill legal obligations.
Export Regime Decision and Export Regulation
🌍 Export Regime Decision is the basic document that determines the country’s foreign trade strategies. This decision determines which products a country can export, under what conditions and to which countries. Special export forms such as Consignment Export and Registered Export are regulated by this decision. The purpose of the decision is to ensure that exports are regulated for the benefit of the country’s economy and that exports are supported for the benefit of the country’s economy. In this process, it is essential to comply with customs legislation and customs law.
📜 Export Regulation explains export-related procedures, application principles and conditions in detail. The steps to be followed during export transactions, required documents, foreign exchange transactions and capital transfers are defined in this regulation. This regulation is prepared in accordance with the country’s general foreign trade regime and guides exporters.
As a result, while the “Export Regime Decision” forms the basis of a country’s export policies, the “Export Regulation” provides detailed information on how these policies will be implemented. These two documents provide guidance and legal framework for international trade so exporters can transact appropriately and effectively.
Export Regime Decision
The Export Regime Decision is the main legal text that determines a country’s export policies and strategies. This decision determines in detail which products the country can export, under what conditions, to which countries and how. This decision, shaped in line with each country’s economic goals, international trade agreements and other foreign policy priorities, guides exporters and aims to promote exports that contribute to the national economy.
Some of its key elements are:
- Product Based Regulations: It indicates which products are allowed or restricted to be exported to which countries. It may also impose quotas or licensing requirements for some products.
- Export Incentives: In line with the economic development strategy, supports and advantages provided to encourage exports in certain sectors or product groups are listed in this section.
- Special Export Forms: Special export types such as Consignment Export, Registered Export and details on how to realize these types are defined in this section.
- International Agreements: Special provisions and rules introduced in line with free trade agreements, customs unions or other international commercial agreements in which the country participates are determined by this decision.
The Export Regime Decision serves as a guide for exporters and helps them overcome the obstacles they may encounter in international trade. It also ensures the regulation and support of exports for the benefit of the country’s economy. This decision is usually prepared and entered into force by a country’s ministry of commerce or economy.
Export Regulation is an official document that specifies in detail a country’s export-related procedures, application principles and conditions. It details the general principles and strategic approaches of the Export Regime Decision with concrete and applicable provisions. This regulation serves as a guide for exporters to learn which steps, which documents and according to which rules they will carry out their export transactions.
The main features and elements of the Export Regulation are:
- Stages of Export Procedures: It explains the process step by step from the beginning to the end of export. Information such as which documents should be submitted, when and where, and which authorities should be applied to are included in this section.
- Required Documents: Provides information about the list of documents required for export transactions, how to obtain them and at what stage they should be submitted.
- Special Export Forms: The application principles of special export types such as Consignment Export, Registration Export, and the points to be taken into consideration when performing such exports are detailed in this section.
- Export Incentives and Supports: Issues such as export incentives, how to receive grants and supports, to whom they are given, when and how to apply are explained in this section.
- Controls and Inspections: Inspection of export transactions, how and by which authorities the controls will be carried out, and in which cases additional inspections or inspections will be carried out are stated in this section.
- Penalties and Sanctions: Penalties, sanctions and administrative procedures to be applied to those who violate export rules and regulations are defined in this section.
The Export Regulation is of critical importance for exporters and guides them to take the right steps to overcome the obstacles they may encounter in international trade. This document is usually prepared by a country’s ministry of commerce or economy, approved by the relevant authorities and comes into force.
🌍 Customs Law: The Customs Law defines the set of rules that must be followed in import and export transactions across the borders of a country. This law is the cornerstone of foreign trade transactions and determines the national customs regime. With this law, countries regulate which products will be transferred in international trade, how and under what conditions.
🔍 Customs Rules: These rules contained in the Customs Law are determined within the framework of customs legislation. These rules define how the value of products is determined when importing and exporting, what documents must be presented, and taxes and tariffs on products.
📋 Customs Procedures: These procedures include the procedures necessary for the realization of foreign trade. Exporter and importer companies must complete customs procedures within the framework of customs legislation.
🛃 Customs Regime: It is the system that determines the customs policies, practices and rules of a country. The foreign exchange regime is one of the basic components of the country’s foreign trade strategy, along with capital movements and foreign trade regime.
💹 Foreign Trade and Foreign Exchange Regime: The Customs Law directly affects a country’s foreign trade and foreign exchange regime. In this context, which currency will be used in foreign trade, how exchange rates will be determined and how capital movements will be carried out are important in this context.
As a result, the Customs Law is of critical importance to ensure that foreign trade transactions are carried out regularly, transparently and fairly. This law is a set of rules created by countries to increase their competitiveness in international trade, protect consumers and prevent illegal trade.
Purpose, Scope and Basic Concepts of the Customs Law
To make a general evaluation about the purpose, scope and basic concepts of the Customs Law:
1. Purpose: 🎯 The main purpose of the Customs Law is to regulate the movement of goods across the borders of a country. With this regulation, the state aims to regulate and supervise foreign trade in accordance with its own economic, social and security policies.
🎯 Additionally, the law prioritizes objectives such as protecting the state’s tax revenues, preventing illegal trade and smuggling, protecting from practices that may harm the national economy, and complying with international treaties and agreements.
2. Scope: 🌐 Customs Law covers all goods entering and exiting the country’s borders. This includes both personal items carried during individual trips and large quantities of goods transported for commercial purposes.
🌐 In addition, this law covers not only physical goods, but also services and other values determined according to the customs legislation of the relevant country.
3. Basic Concepts: 🔹 Customs Tariff Schedule: It is the list in which imported or exported goods are classified and the customs tax rates to be applied are specified.
🔹 Customs Declaration: It is the official document in which the quality, quantity, value, origin and other information of the goods are stated when the goods are presented to customs.
🔹 Customs Area: It is the area within the borders where the country’s customs legislation is applied.
🔹 Customs Value: It is the value taken as the basis for calculating the customs duty of the imported goods.
🔹 Warehouse: It is the place where imported goods are stored under customs control without paying customs duties.
The Customs Law is a law that is constantly updated and evolving in line with the economic strategies, social policies and security concerns of countries. For this reason, it is important for individuals and organizations that carry out customs-related transactions to closely follow the current legislation.
Customs Declaration is an official document submitted to the customs of a country, containing detailed information about the goods to be imported or exported. This declaration is used during the execution of customs procedures to indicate the characteristics, origin, value and other relevant information of the goods concerned. Filling out the customs declaration accurately and completely is of critical importance for customs procedures to proceed quickly and smoothly.
The important elements of the customs declaration are:
- Description of Goods: A complete and clear description of the declared product or material is made.
- Quantity and Weight: The total quantity, weight and packaging information, if any, of the goods are stated.
- Country of Origin: It is stated from which country the goods came from or to which country they were sent.
- Value of the Goods: The total value for which the goods are invoiced is the information required to calculate the customs duty.
- Tariff Code: The code specified in the Customs Tariff Schedule that determines the classification of the goods.
- Transportation Information: Information about how the goods are transported (sea, air, land, etc.).
- Customs Duties and Other Fees: Details of taxes, tariffs and other fees applied to goods.
Completing the customs declaration is usually done by a customs consultant or an authorized person. However, importer or exporter companies are also responsible for the accuracy and completeness of the declaration. Criminal sanctions may be imposed if misleading, incomplete or incorrect information is provided. Therefore, it is essential to fill out the customs declaration carefully and accurately.
Customs Regimes refer to the special legal situations to which goods entering, exiting or in transit are subject to the customs territory of a country. These regimes determine the status, taxation and control of goods within the customs territory. Different customs regimes serve countries’ foreign trade policies, economic strategies and other social, economic and political objectives.
🌍 Some Basic Customs Regimes are:
- Entry to Free Circulation Regime: It refers to the full entry of goods into the customs territory and their free circulation in this region. Necessary customs duties and other financial obligations are paid for goods under this regime.
- Transit Regime: Enables the transportation of goods from the customs area to another place. In this regime, goods pass through the customs territory but reach another place without being subjected to any commercial transactions.
- Warehouse (Warehouse) Regime: It allows the goods to be stored for a certain period of time without being subject to customs duties or commercial policy measures.
- Temporary Import Regime: It is used for goods that are imported for a certain period of time and then returned in the same condition. For example, products to be exhibited or machines brought for a specific job are evaluated in this context.
- Import and Export Regimes Under Processing: It is used to re-export the goods after they have been subjected to processes such as production, repair or assembly. Under this regime, if there is an increase in value as a result of transactions on goods, taxation is made on this increase.
- Special Use Regime: It refers to the bringing and use of goods to the customs territory for a special use under certain conditions and within a certain period of time. For example, items belonging to people who benefit from diplomatic privileges may be considered within the scope of this regime.
These regimes are regulated within the customs law and customs legislation that reflect the countries’ foreign trade policies, economic strategies and obligations to international agreements and contracts. Regimes may change over time and new regimes may be added according to the economic and commercial needs of countries. Therefore, foreign trade are equipped with up-to-date customs regime information.
Transit Regime refers to the transportation of goods from one customs area to another without being subject to customs duties and commercial policy measures. This regime is applied during the transit of the goods through the customs territory of a country, but the goods are not subjected to any commercial transaction within the customs territory during this transit. The goods must be under customs inspection and supervision throughout the transit process.
🚛 Features and Basic Concepts of Transit Regime are as follows:
- Customs Control: It is essential that transit goods remain under customs control throughout the period of transportation. The vehicle or container in which the goods are transported is sealed and this seal must not be broken until it reaches the destination customs.
- Customs Declaration: A special customs declaration designated for the transit regime must be filled out and submitted to the relevant customs administration.
- Assurance: When any tax or penalty needs to be collected on goods in transit, an assurance is taken to guarantee the collection of this amount.
- Notification to Customs of Destination: When the transit process of the goods ends, that is, when it reaches the customs of destination, this situation must be notified to the customs of origin.
- Time Limit: There is a certain time limit for the completion of the transit process of the goods. This period may vary depending on the type of goods, mode of transportation and route.
- Special Documents: For some special types of goods (for example, in the transportation of dangerous goods) additional documents may need to be submitted.
Transit Regime has an important role in international trade and ensures the rapid and efficient transportation of goods between different countries. This regime’s -trade-international-trade/”> foreign trade dynamics, customs legislation and customs law regulation, trade more orderly and It allows it to happen smoothly.
Customs Warehouse Regime
Customs Warehouse Regime is a customs regime in which goods are stored exempt from customs duties and commercial policy measures for a certain period of time. While the goods are in the warehouse, transactions such as releasing them for consumption, subjecting them to another customs regime or re-exporting them to another country may be carried out.
📦 Features and Basic Concepts of the Customs Warehouse Regime are as follows:
- Tax Advantages: The goods are exempt from customs duties while they remain in the warehouse. However, if the goods are released for consumption or subjected to another customs regime at the end of this period, the relevant taxes must be paid.
- Customs Inspection: Goods stored in warehouses are kept under customs inspection. This refers to the supervision of the removal of goods from the warehouse or their transportation to another location within the warehouse.
- Time Restriction: The period during which the goods can remain in the warehouse is generally determined by customs legislation. When this period expires, the goods must be subject to a customs regime or re-exported.
- Documentation: Relevant customs declarations must be filled out and submitted during the entry, storage and exit of the goods to the warehouse.
- Special Goods: Warehouse regime may be subject to different rules for certain types of goods. For example, additional security and isolation measures may be required for the storage of hazardous materials.
- Relationship with Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Regime: Foreign exchange transfers during the bringing and taking out of goods to warehouses should be carried out in accordance with the foreign trade and foreign exchange regime rules.
Customs Warehouse Regime, international foreign trade activities to be carried out effectively and flexibly. This regime provides great advantages, especially in commercial transactions whose timing is uncertain or in cases where goods must wait. Within the scope of customs legislation and customs law, when the rules of this regime are followed, commercial activities can be carried out more efficiently and cost-effectively.
Internal Processing Regime
Internal Processing Regime (DIR) is a customs regime widely used in foreign trade. This regime allows goods imported into a country to be processed within a certain period of time (production, assembly, repair, etc.) and subject to re-export, allowing these goods to be imported exempt from customs duties and commercial policy measures.
📦 Features and Basic Concepts of the Inward Processing Regime are as follows:
- Tax Advantages: Goods imported within the scope of DIR are exempt from customs duties, VAT and other import-related taxes and duties. This advantage is conditional on the goods being processed and re-exported within a certain period of time.
- Export Commitment: Within the scope of this regime, it is necessary to undertake to process and re-export the goods imported within a certain period of time.
- Customs Inspection: The goods are processed under customs inspection within the scope of this regime. The final use and tracking of the goods is carried out by the customs administration.
- Documentation: The inward processing permit is issued by the authorized institutions and this document is required for the import and processing of the goods within the scope of this regime.
- Relationship with the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Regime: Foreign trade transactions carried out within the scope of DIR must be carried out in accordance with the rules of the foreign exchange and foreign trade regime.
- Return of Goods: The goods processed or produced within the scope of DIR must be exported within the specified period, in accordance with the rules of this regime.
Internal Processing Regime is used in international foreign trade activities, especially in order to benefit from commercial advantages between countries, reduce costs and increase the competitiveness of products. This regime encourages the processing of goods within customs borders and the re-export of the products obtained as a result of these processes. In this way, the commercial cooperation and investment environment between countries becomes more dynamic. Within the framework of Customs legislation and customs law, it is essential to comply with the rules and conditions of this regime.
Processing Regime Under Customs Control
Customs Control Processing Regime is another important customs regime used in foreign trade. This regime offers the opportunity to balance the tax and commercial policy measures required for the import of a good with the export of the same or similar goods. In other words, the imported goods undergo certain processes within the scope of this regime and are then re-exported.
🔍 Key Features of the Processing Regime Under Customs Control:
- Tax and Duty Exemption: Goods imported under this regime are exempt from customs duties and commercial policy measures. However, this exemption only applies to subsequent exports of the goods.
- A Certain Period: A certain period of time is given for the goods to be processed under customs control and re-exported.
- Return Condition: Re-export of imported goods after being processed or modified is mandatory.
- Inspection and Tracking: Processing, exchange and export of imported goods are strictly inspected by the customs administration.
- Relationship between Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Regime: Import and export transactions of goods under this regime must comply with the rules of exchange and foreign trade regime.
- Principle of Equivalence: The imported goods, after being processed or modified, must be the same or similar to the goods to be exported.
Customs Control Processing Regime allows companies to produce at low cost in a country protected by high taxes and trade measures and then offer these products to the global market. Proper use of this regime contributes to promoting exports and increasing international foreign trade capacity within the framework of customs legislation and customs law.
Temporary Import Regime
Temporary Import Regime is a customs regime that allows foreign goods to be imported into a country’s customs territory for a certain period of time, for a specific purpose and with certain tax advantages. This regime is often used to import equipment and materials required for fairs, exhibitions, special projects, tests or scientific research. Temporarily imported goods must be removed from the country in the same condition (without processing or modification) at the end of the specified period.
🔍 Key Features of the Temporary Import Regime:
- Taxes and Duties Exemption: Goods imported under this regime may be fully or partially exempt from customs duties and other commercial policy measures.
- Determined Period: The period during which the goods can remain in the country is determined in advance. This period may be extended depending on the purpose.
- Re-export Condition: The imported goods must be removed from the country in their original condition (without any processing or modification) at the end of the specified period.
- Control and Assurance: The customs administration may obtain assurance to guarantee the return of imported goods within the specified period.
- Relationship between Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Regime: Temporary import procedures of goods must comply with the rules of exchange and foreign trade regime
- Application Areas: Temporary import is generally used for special purposes such as professional equipment, transportation vehicles, tourist vehicles, educational and research materials.
Thanks to the Temporary Import Regime, companies or individuals can economically bring from abroad the equipment or materials required to complete a specific project or serve a specific purpose. Correct implementation of this regime can help speed up business processes and reduce costs within the framework of customs legislation and customs law. This is a great advantage, especially for companies active in international foreign trade activities.
External Processing Regime
Outside Processing Regime is a customs regime that covers the removal of goods in a country’s customs territory outside the customs territory for certain operations (such as processing, repair or assembly) and their subsequent reimportation in processed or unprocessed form. This regime offers domestic producers the opportunity to produce abroad under more favorable conditions and increases their international competitiveness.
🔍 Key Features of External Processing Regime:
- Tax and Duty Exemption: Under this regime, goods exported abroad and brought back after processing may be fully or partially exempt from customs duties and other commercial policy measures.
- Specified Period: The period during which the goods can remain abroad is determined in advance. This period may be extended depending on the purpose.
- Processing Condition: Goods sent abroad must be brought back processed or unprocessed within the specified period.
- Control and Assurance: The customs administration may obtain assurance to guarantee the return of the processed goods within the specified period.
- Relationship between Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Regime: The processes of taking goods abroad and bringing them back must comply with the rules of exchangeand foreign trade regime.< /li>
- Customs Declaration: In accordance with Customs legislation and customs law, a special customs declaration must be issued for transactions under this regime.
Outside Processing Regime is frequently used as part of countries’ foreign trade strategies. The main purpose of this regime is to increase the international competitiveness of the national industry, reduce foreign exchange expenses and ensure that products processed abroad are brought into the country under more favorable conditions. In this way, domestic companies can operate more effectively in the global market and increase their international foreign trade volume.
Free Zones are customs and commercial areas established in a certain geographical area in order to support the country’s economic and foreign trade strategies. > are special economic zones exempt from the general provisions of the regulations. These zones are subject to special administrative regulations determined by laws and regulations and are guided by free zone legislation.
Commercial activities and industrial production carried out in free zones are generally carried out with the aim of supporting foreign trade and encouraging foreign capital investment. These regions generally have more flexible foreign exchange and capital regimes, making them attractive to foreign investors.
🌎 Features of Free Zones:
- Financial and Economic Advantages: Businesses often benefit from advantages such as tax reductions and low or zero customs tariffs.
- Industrial and Commercial Export: Goods produced in the regions can easily access international markets both as industrial export and commercial export
- Flexible Administrative Regulations: Less bureaucratic obstacles are encountered than traditional foreign trade procedures.
- Global Competitiveness: Countries can use free zones as a tool to become more competitive in the global economy.
In summary, free zones are an important part of a country’s foreign trade and economic strategy. When managed correctly, it can accelerate economic growth, encourage foreign investment and increase the country’s competitiveness in international trade.
Emergence and Termination of Customs Obligation
The emergence of customs liability begins when a good exceeds the customs borders of a particular country. This refers to either importing or exporting the goods. In accordance with the Customs Law, such action gives rise to customs obligations. These obligations relate to customs duties, other taxes and fees subject to customs tariff
During the entry or exit of a good into the customs zone, a customs declaration for this good must be submitted. This declaration contains all the information necessary for the goods to be subjected to customs procedure. Especially in foreign trade, customs taxes determined on the export price obtained by the exporter are paid with this declaration.
Expiration of customs obligation can occur in several situations:
- Situations in which all customs duties and other obligations to be paid are completed.
- Return or destruction of goods subject to customs obligations.
- Other situations determined by customs legislation, some special customs rules or administrative regulations.
These processes include the financial, economic and administrative aspects specified in the customs law and customs legislation. It is carried out in accordance with the regulations. For companies that carry out commercial activities as well as industrial export and commercial export activities, fulfilling their customs obligations correctly requires both legal compliance and cost savings. It is extremely critical for its effectiveness.
As a result, customs obligations that begin when a good crosses the borders of a country within the scope of foreign trade end under the specified conditions. This process is determined by both the country’s laws and regimes and international agreements.
Calculation of Customs Duties
Calculation of Customs Duties; It is one of the basic components of foreign trade and is determined according to each country’s own customs legislation. These calculations start when a product or good crosses the customs borders and are carried out according to the principles contained in the Customs Law.
The main factor taken into account when calculating customs duties is the customs tariff of the product. This tariff is determined depending on the type of product, its origin and other specific characteristics. The tax amount is calculated according to the tariff determined for the relevant product, based on the customs declaration submitted by the exporter or importer.
In commercial activities, especially in industrial exports and commercial exports, it is extremely critical that the products are declared under the correct tariff heading. The accuracy and completeness of the information in the declaration prevents possible financial liabilities or criminal sanctions. Subjecting the products to customs regime is carried out depending on the declared information and the compliance of this information with the Customs Law
In addition, export cost also plays an important role in tax calculations. Because customs duties are calculated according to the rates determined on this price. In the calculations, the country’s law, foreign exchange and capital regime are also taken into account. Therefore, companies dealing with foreign trade must have detailed information on this subject and closely follow the relevant administrative regulations. In particular, changes in customs legislation may directly affect tax rates, so it is recommended that companies be proactive in this regard.
Exemption and Exception from Customs Duties
Exemption and Exception in Customs Duties is a very critical concept in foreign trade activities. This concept refers to situations where, under certain conditions, imported or exported goods are fully or partially exempt from customs duties. In general, the purpose of these exemptions or exclusions is to achieve economic, commercial, economic or social objectives.
- 📌 Imports for Private Use: Some products brought for individual use, especially those brought as personal belongings during travel, can generally be exempt from customs duty.
- 📌 Investment Incentives: Many countries offer various customs duty exemptions to encourage investments. Such incentives are generally aimed at large commercial activities or strategic sectors
- 📌 Diplomatic Exemptions: Diplomats and representatives of international organizations can obtain tax exemptions on some goods they import, usually with special provisions in the Customs Law
- 📌 Temporary Import: Some goods may be exempt from customs duties when brought into a country for a certain period of time. For example, this may include equipment brought for fairs or events.
- 📌 Outside Processing Regime: Customs duty exemption may be provided for goods temporarily imported to be processed or assembled for export purposes.
- 📌 Special Economic Zones: Free zones or special economic zones generally have administrative regulations different from customs legislation, and It offers tax advantages for strong>foreign tradeactivities
- 📌 Social and Cultural Exemptions: There may be exemptions for products imported for use in social areas such as education, culture or health.
Exactly how these exemptions and exceptions apply may vary depending on each country’s own customs legislation, laws and international agreements. For this reason, it is very important for companies and individuals interested in foreign trade to have up-to-date information and get support from people who are experts in this field.
Foreign Exchange Legislation
Foreign Exchange Legislation is a set of legal regulations that regulate a country’s foreign exchange and foreign exchange-related transactions. It is vital to know and understand this legislation, especially for companies and individuals active in foreign trade. In this context, foreign exchange legislation covers imports, exports, foreign exchange transactions, capital movements and similar foreign exchange-related issues. /p>
Turkey’s foreign exchange regime has entered a liberalization process, especially after the 1980s. In this process, restrictions on foreign trade and capital movements were largely abolished, and a liberalized foreign exchange regime was introduced. The basis of Turkish foreign exchange legislation is the regulations and communiqués regulating foreign exchange transactions, as well as the laws regarding customs and trade.
Warehouse operations are also closely related to foreign exchange legislation. A warehouse is a customs area in foreign trade where imported or exported goods are exempt from taxes and other financial obligations for a certain period of time. Warehouse and foreign exchange regime are intertwined in terms of foreign exchange transfer, collection, certificate of conformity and other regulatory requirements, especially in import and export transactions.</p >
In addition, regimes such as inward processing regime and outward processing regime are an important part of the foreign exchange legislation within the export regime. These regimes were created for the purpose of controlling products and foreign exchange movements in foreign trade.
Resource utilization support fund is a fund created to facilitate the foreign exchange obligations faced by exporters during export transactions. This fund has an important role in financing the support provided to exporters.
Finally, financial incentives such as tax, duty and fee exemptions are offered as part of the foreign exchange legislation to encourage and facilitate foreign trade.
For this reason, it is critical for companies and individuals interested in foreign trade to be informed about foreign exchange legislation and the obligations imposed by this legislation so that they can carry out their transactions quickly and without errors. It has.
Export and Import Fees
Before giving information about Export and Import Costs, let’s simply define these two concepts. Export value is the total amount obtained for the sale of a good or service abroad. Import fee is the total amount paid when a good or service is purchased from abroad. These prices have an important role in international trade and directly affect both the foreign trade balance and the economic situation of a country.
- Export value refers to the income obtained as a result of selling a good or service abroad.
- This price may vary depending on the quality of the goods or services in question, international market conditions, exchange rate fluctuations and foreign exchange regime.
- Correct calculation of the export price is critical in terms of both performing cost and profitability analysis for the exporter and performing customs procedures and tax payments correctly.
- Import price is the total cost paid for purchasing a good or service from abroad.
- This price includes the sum of many elements, including customs tariff, import duties, customs duties, VAT and other financial obligations.< /li>
- Correct calculation of the import cost is of great importance for the importer to be able to make a correct cost analysis, plan his budget correctly and act in accordance with the legal regulations regarding foreign trade.
Accurate and complete calculation of export and import costs is essential for compliance with law and legislative requirements. In addition, the taxes to be collected on these amounts constitute a significant part of state revenues. Therefore, correct declaration and payment of these costs is of great importance for the national economy.
Invisible Transactions refer to economic activities that fall outside the exchange of goods and services in international trade and usually result in the transfer of foreign currency. These transactions appear under the “current account” account in a country’s balance of payments. Invisible transactions often result from factors such as tourism, transportation, financial services, insurance, copyright and patent revenues. These transactions are among the important factors affecting a country’s foreign trade balance.
Some important components of invisible transactions are:
- Tourism Income and Expenses: Expenditures of foreign tourists coming to the country are recorded as income, and expenditures of citizens abroad are recorded as expenses.
- Transportation Revenues: Revenues obtained for the transportation of goods coming from abroad or going abroad.
- Financial Services: Income and expenses arising from services provided between international banking and financial institutions.
- Insurance Premiums and Compensations: Premiums paid to insurance companies abroad and compensations received from these companies.
- Copyrights and Patent Revenues: Payments made by foreign companies or individuals for the use of copyrights, patents or licenses belonging to citizens of the country.
Invisible transactions can directly affect a country’s foreign trade balance and foreign exchange reserves. While tourism revenues, in particular, can be an important source of foreign currency for some countries; High use of foreign financial services or large amounts of investment abroad may result in foreign exchange outflow. Therefore, these transactions must be carefully monitored and recorded accurately within the framework of law and legislation.
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Foreign Capital and Other Capital Movements
In the world economy, capital movements as well as foreign trade activities play a major role. These movements include direct and indirect investments, especially known as foreign capital investments. These concepts are related to capital flows outside national economies, and laws and legislation have a decisive impact on the regulation of these flows.
Foreign direct investment results in a foreign company or individual making a physical investment in a country. This may include activities such as the construction of a factory or the acquisition of a company. These types of investments usually have long-term and strategic goals. In addition, foreign portfolio investments generally refer to short-term investments and include financial instruments such as the purchase of stocks or bonds.
Capital importer countries aim to benefit from the benefits of foreign capital, such as triggering economic growth and creating employment. However, due to desire to make profits, foreign investors may withdraw their investments or direct them to other markets. This may put pressure on foreign exchange and capital movements, so capital movements need to be regulated.
How foreign capital amounts and movements affect a country’s economic structures, customs policies, import and export regimes? Understanding its impact is of critical importance for foreign trade experts. Proper management of foreign capital movements is essential for sustainable economic growth and stability.
Securities generally refer to documents that carry value and are bought and sold in financial markets. These assets are frequently included in the portfolios of individuals and institutions as an investment tool. So, what exactly are securities and why are they important?
1. Definition: Securities are documents that represent a receivable, partnership right or ownership. These documents have an important role in foreign trade activities, capital markets and other financial transactions and are generally considered among liquid assets.
2. Types of Securities:Securities generally fall into two main categories:
- Shares: Represent a certain part of a company’s capital. It gives its owner the right to receive a share of the company’s profits, to vote and to attend the company’s general assembly meetings.
- Bonds: They are generally debt securities issued by states, municipalities or companies to borrow money for a certain period of time at a certain interest rate.
3. Importance:Securities increase the liquidity of capital markets. While this makes it easier for companies to obtain financing, it also offers investors different foreign capital and investment options. It also contributes to economic growth.
4. Legal and Regulatory Framework:The buying, selling, emission and other transactions of securities are regulated by laws and legislation. This aims to protect the rights of investors and ensure the transparency and integrity of the market.
As a result, securities are one of the cornerstones of modern financial markets. They offer various advantages for both individual investors and institutional investors. However, such investments also have risks, so it is recommended to conduct good research and analysis before investing.
Real Estate Assets
Real estate assets refer to land, buildings or any kind of immovable property. These assets are physical assets with economic value and are viewed as a long-term investment tool for many investors. So, what exactly are real estate assets and why are they important?
1. Definition: Immovable assets include land, residence, workplace, land and other immovable assets. Generally, rights over these assets are recorded in land registry offices and these records are accepted as legal evidence of ownership.
2. Real Estate Types: Real estate assets are generally divided into the following main categories:
- Residential Properties:Houses, apartments and other residential spaces fall into this category.
- Commercial Real Estate: Refers to areas used for business purposes such as office buildings, stores, shopping malls.
- Industrial Real Estate: Includes real estate used in industrial activities such as factories and warehouses.
- Land: Empty land used for agriculture, construction or other purposes.
3. Importance: Real estate assets are generally more resistant to economic fluctuations because they are a physical asset. Moreover, in conjunction with foreign trade and economic growth, urban development and industrialization lead to the expansion of the real estate market. It has advantages for investors such as increase in value and rental income.
4. Legal and Regulatory Framework: Rights on real estate assets are regulated by land registry and cadastre laws and other relevant legislation and laws. These regulations ensure that transactions between buyers and sellers are carried out in a transparent, fair and reliable manner.
As a result, real estate assets are a valuable investment tool for both individual and institutional investors. However, it is important to be careful in such investments and get help from an expert consultant, because they may involve risks depending on regional developments, economic factors and legal regulations.
Credit refers to individuals or institutions borrowing money or its equivalent from financial institutions for a certain period of time. In this process, the amount received is usually repaid with interest added. It is possible to say that loans have an important place in the economy and foreign trade. However, before taking out a loan, the relevant law and legislation as well as the costs must be carefully evaluated.
1. Loan Types:Loans can be divided into various categories according to their purpose of use, duration and collateral structure:
- Consumer Loans: Used to meet the short and medium-term needs of individuals.
- Housing Loans: Used for the purchase, construction or renovation of housing.
- Commercial Loans: Used to finance the commercial activities of businesses. This type of credit is generally used in import and export transactions
- Industrial Loans: Used for financing industrial and industrial projects
2. Loan Calculations:The factors that determine the cost of loans are primarily the interest rate; file costs, insurance premiums and other financial liabilities. Changes in exchange rates can have a significant impact on foreign currency loans.
3. Legal and Regulatory Framework: Credit buying and selling transactions are regulated by the banking law, consumer protection legislation and other relevant regulations. These laws and legislations aim to protect both lending institutions and debtors.
4. Risks and Evaluation:One of the most important factors to consider when taking a loan is the risk of the loan. Factors such as credit score, income status, current debts and payment history play an important role in evaluating the loan application.
As a result, loans enable individuals and businesses to meet their financial needs. However, costs, payment plans and possible risks should be carefully evaluated before taking out a loan. Working with an expert consultant can help you go through the loan process more consciously and efficiently.
Non-cash Loans, Guarantee and Guarantee
Non-cash loans are types of loans provided by a bank or financial institution to its customers, which are not provided directly in cash but can be converted into cash under certain conditions. These loans ensure that the parties trust each other and secure the transactions, especially during commercial activities and foreign trade transactions. The main types of non-cash loans are letters of guarantee, letters of credit and letters of guarantee.
- Letter of Guarantee: It is a written commitment given by a bank to a third party that its customer will fulfill an obligation arising from law or contract. If the customer does not fulfill his obligation, the bank assumes this liability.
- Letter of Credit: It is a payment commitment received through banks, especially in foreign trade transactions, so that the exporter can collect the cost of the goods sent to the import party. li>
- Letter of Guarantee: It is a written guarantee document given for the correct and timely performance of a job or obligation. Frequently used in commercial activities
Guarantee: It is the commitment of a person or organization to assume the debt in case the debtor does not pay his debt. This is often an additional assurance that banks require when granting loans.
The Importance of Non-cash Loan and Guarantee:
- Such loans and guarantees ensure that risk is minimized, especially in foreign trade transactions
- It offers the necessary financial assurance for businesses to continue their commercial activities without interruption.
- It contributes to the strengthening of commercial relations by creating trust between creditors and debtors.
As a result, non-cash loans have a critical role in reducing financial risks that may occur in the business world. Especially in international trade, it allows transactions to be carried out smoothly by eliminating situations of distrust between businesses in different countries. Regarding the use of these loans, international regulations as well as local law and legislation are also very important.
Foreign Exchange Purchase and Sale Documents and Turkish Currency Transfer Documents
Documentation of payment transactions carried out during foreign trade and capital movements is of great importance both to verify the legality of the transaction and to follow the country’s foreign exchange movements. In this context, foreign exchange purchase and sale documents and Turkish currency transfer documents are among the important documentation systems in Turkey’s foreign exchange regime.
- 📜 Foreign Exchange Purchase and Sale Documents:
- In foreign exchange buying and selling transactions, it is the official document given to prove that the transaction has been completed.
- It shows the amount, type and date of the transaction of foreign currency purchased or sold, especially during export and import.
- For foreign exchange transactions, authorized institutions usually request these documents. Thanks to these documents, foreign exchange movements are tracked and compliance with laws and regulations is ensured.
- 📜 Foreign Exchange Purchase and Sale Documents:
- 📜 Turkish Currency Transfer Documents:
- These are official documents documenting transfer transactions made in Turkish lira.
- It is used to check whether national and international transfers made in Turkish currency are carried out in accordance with the law, within the framework of the financial regulations and foreign exchange regime in the country.
- These documents are also of great importance during the transfer of Turkish lira abroad. It is especially used in foreign trade transactions and foreign capital movements.
- 📜 Turkish Currency Transfer Documents:
These documents, used in foreign currency and Turkish currency transfers, are essential to maintain the economic stability of the country and to control foreign currency and Turkish lira movements in compliance with law and legislation. At the same time, these documents increase the transparency and auditability of the business activities of banks, exchange offices and other financial institutions. The foreign exchange regime that regulates foreign exchange movements requires the use and control of these documents. For this reason, businesses and individuals making foreign currency and Turkish lira transfers must keep these documents regularly and submit them to the authorities when necessary.